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Über uns. Nutzungsbedingungen Zahlungsmöglichkeiten Menü. Tolkien might well have been killed himself, but he had suffered from health problems and had been removed from combat multiple times.
According to John Garth:. Although Kitchener 's army enshrined old social boundaries, it also chipped away at the class divide by throwing men from all walks of life into a desperate situation together.
Tolkien wrote that the experience taught him, "a deep sympathy and feeling for the Tommy ; especially the plain soldier from the agricultural counties".
He remained profoundly grateful for the lesson. For a long time, he had been imprisoned in a tower, not of pearl, but of ivory.
In later years, Tolkien indignantly declared that those who searched his works for parallels to the Second World War were entirely mistaken:.
One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in and the following years.
By all but one of my close friends were dead. A weak and emaciated Tolkien spent the remainder of the war alternating between hospitals and garrison duties, being deemed medically unfit for general service.
Lost Tales represented Tolkien's attempt to create a mythology for England, a project he would abandon without ever completing. In a letter, Tolkien described his son John as " conceived and carried during the starvation-year of and the great U-Boat campaign round about the Battle of Cambrai , when the end of the war seemed as far off as it does now".
Tolkien was promoted to the temporary rank of lieutenant on 6 January After his wife's death in , Tolkien remembered,. I never called Edith Luthien —but she was the source of the story that in time became the chief part of the Silmarillion.
It was first conceived in a small woodland glade filled with hemlocks  at Roos in Yorkshire where I was for a brief time in command of an outpost of the Humber Garrison in , and she was able to live with me for a while.
In those days her hair was raven, her skin clear, her eyes brighter than you have seen them, and she could sing—and dance.
On 16 July Tolkien was officially demobilized, at Fovant, on Salisbury Plain, with a temporary disability pension.
On 3 November , Tolkien was demobilized and left the army, retaining his rank of lieutenant. Gordon ; both became academic standard works for several decades.
In mid, he began to tutor undergraduates privately, most importantly those of Lady Margaret Hall and St Hugh's College , given that the women's colleges were in great need of good teachers in their early years, and Tolkien as a married professor then still not common was considered suitable, as a bachelor don would not have been.
He also published a philological essay in on the name " Nodens ", following Sir Mortimer Wheeler 's unearthing of a Roman Asclepeion at Lydney Park , Gloucestershire, in In the s, Tolkien undertook a translation of Beowulf , which he finished in , but did not publish.
It was finally edited by his son and published in , more than 40 years after Tolkien's death and almost 90 years after its completion.
Ten years after finishing his translation, Tolkien gave a highly acclaimed lecture on the work, " Beowulf : The Monsters and the Critics ", which had a lasting influence on Beowulf research.
Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is "widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism", noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to its purely linguistic elements.
According to Humphrey Carpenter , Tolkien had an ingenious means of beginning his series of lectures on Beowulf :. Decades later, W. Auden wrote to his former professor,.
I don't think that I have ever told you what an unforgettable experience it was for me as an undergraduate, hearing you recite Beowulf. The voice was the voice of Gandalf.
In the run-up to the Second World War , Tolkien was earmarked as a codebreaker. In , Tolkien moved to Merton College, Oxford , becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature ,  in which post he remained until his retirement in He served as an external examiner for University College, Dublin , for many years.
Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in , close to a decade after the first sketches. Tolkien also translated the Book of Jonah for the Jerusalem Bible , which was published in Tolkien was very devoted to his children and sent them illustrated letters from Father Christmas when they were young.
Each year more characters were added, such as the North Polar Bear Father Christmas's helper , the Snow Man his gardener , Ilbereth the elf his secretary , and various other, minor characters.
The major characters would relate tales of Father Christmas's battles against goblins who rode on bats and the various pranks committed by the North Polar Bear.
During his life in retirement, from up to his death in , Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame.
In , his friend C. Lewis even nominated him for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory,  and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth , which was then a seaside resort patronized by the British upper middle class.
Tolkien's status as a best-selling author gave them easy entry into polite society, but Tolkien deeply missed the company of his fellow Inklings.
Edith, however, was overjoyed to step into the role of a society hostess, which had been the reason that Tolkien selected Bournemouth in the first place.
According to Humphrey Carpenter :. Those friends who knew Ronald and Edith Tolkien over the years never doubted that there was deep affection between them.
It was visible in the small things, the almost absurd degree in which each worried about the other's health, and the care in which they chose and wrapped each other's birthday presents; and in the large matters, the way in which Ronald willingly abandoned such a large part of his life in retirement to give Edith the last years in Bournemouth that he felt she deserved, and the degree in which she showed pride in his fame as an author.
A principal source of happiness to them was their shared love of their family. This bound them together until the end of their lives, and it was perhaps the strongest force in the marriage.
They delighted to discuss and mull over every detail of the lives of their children, and later their grandchildren. Edith Tolkien died on 29 November , at the age of According to Simon Tolkien :.
My grandmother died two years before my grandfather and he came back to live in Oxford. Merton College gave him rooms just off the High Street.
I went there frequently and he'd take me to lunch in the Eastgate Hotel. Those lunches were rather wonderful for a year-old boy spending time with his grandfather, but sometimes he seemed sad.
There was one visit when he told me how much he missed my grandmother. It must have been very strange for him being alone after they had been married for more than 50 years.
When Tolkien died 21 months later on 2 September from a bleeding ulcer and chest infection,  at the age of 81,  he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name.
The engravings read:. Wolvercote Cemetery , Oxford. Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic , and in his religious and political views he was mostly a traditionalist moderate, with libertarian , distributist , and monarchist leanings, in the sense of favouring established conventions and orthodoxies over innovation and modernization, whilst castigating government bureaucracy; in he wrote, "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy philosophically understood , meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs —or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy.
Although he did not often write or speak about it, Tolkien advocated the dismantling of the British Empire and even of the United Kingdom.
In a letter to a former student, the Belgian linguist Simonne d'Ardenne, he wrote, "The political situation is dreadful I have the greatest sympathy with Belgium—which is about the right size of any country!
I wish my own were bounded still by the seas of the Tweed and the walls of Wales Tolkien had an intense hatred for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered to be devouring the English countryside and simpler life.
For most of his adult life, he was disdainful of cars, preferring to ride a bicycle. Many commentators  have remarked on a number of potential parallels between the Middle-earth saga and events in Tolkien's lifetime.
Tolkien ardently rejected this opinion in the foreword to the second edition of the novel, stating he preferred applicability to allegory.
He concludes that Christianity itself follows this pattern of inner consistency and external truth. His belief in the fundamental truths of Christianity leads commentators to find Christian themes in The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien objected strongly to C. Lewis's use of religious references in his stories, which were often overtly allegorical. His love of myths and his devout faith came together in his assertion that he believed mythology to be the divine echo of "the Truth".
Tolkien's devout Roman Catholic faith was a significant factor in the conversion of C. Lewis from atheism to Christianity, although Tolkien was dismayed that Lewis chose to join the Church of England.
He once wrote in a letter to Rayner Unwin 's daughter Camilla, who wished to know what the purpose of life was, that "[i]t may be said that the chief purpose of life, for any one of us, is to increase according to our capacity our knowledge of God by all the means we have, and to be moved by it to praise and thanks.
According to his grandson Simon Tolkien , Tolkien in the last years of his life was disappointed by some of the liturgical reforms and changes implemented after the Second Vatican Council :.
I vividly remember going to church with him in Bournemouth. He was a devout Roman Catholic and it was soon after the Church had changed the liturgy from Latin to English.
My grandfather obviously didn't agree with this and made all the responses very loudly in Latin while the rest of the congregation answered in English.
I found the whole experience quite excruciating, but my grandfather was oblivious. He simply had to do what he believed to be right. Tolkien voiced support for the Nationalists eventually led by Franco during the Spanish Civil War upon hearing that communist Republicans were destroying churches and killing priests and nuns.
Tolkien was contemptuous of Joseph Stalin. Tolkien said, "I utterly repudiate any such reading , which angers me.
The situation was conceived long before the Russian revolution. Such allegory is entirely foreign to my thought. Tolkien vocally opposed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party before the Second World War , and was known to especially despise Nazi racist and anti-semitic ideology.
To Tolkien's outrage, he was asked beforehand whether he was of Aryan origin. In a letter to his British publisher Stanley Unwin , he condemned Nazi "race-doctrine" as "wholly pernicious and unscientific".
He added that he had many Jewish friends and was considering "letting a German translation go hang".
The more tactful letter was sent and was lost during the later bombing of Germany. In the unsent letter, Tolkien makes the point that " Aryan " is a linguistic term, denoting speakers of Indo-Iranian languages.
He continued,. But if I am to understand that you are enquiring whether I am of Jewish origin, I can only reply that I regret that I appear to have no ancestors of that gifted people.
My great-great-grandfather came to England in the 18th century from Germany: the main part of my descent is therefore purely English, and I am an English subject—which should be sufficient.
I have been accustomed, nonetheless, to regard my German name with pride, and continued to do so throughout the period of the late regrettable war, in which I served in the English army.
I cannot, however, forbear to comment that if impertinent and irrelevant inquiries of this sort are to become the rule in matters of literature, then the time is not far distant when a German name will no longer be a source of pride.
In a letter to his son Michael, he expressed his resentment at the distortion of Germanic history in "Nordicism":. You have to understand the good in things, to detect the real evil.
But no one ever calls on me to "broadcast" or do a postscript. Yet I suppose I know better than most what is the truth about this "Nordic" nonsense.
Anyway, I have in this war a burning private grudge Ruining, perverting, misapplying, and making for ever accursed, that noble northern spirit, a supreme contribution to Europe, which I have ever loved, and tried to present in its true light.
Nowhere, incidentally, was it nobler than in England, nor more early sanctified and Christianized. In , he objected to a description of Middle-earth as " Nordic ", a term he said he disliked because of its association with racialist theories.
Tolkien criticized Allied use of total-war tactics against civilians of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. In a letter to his son Christopher, he wrote:.
We were supposed to have reached a stage of civilization in which it might still be necessary to execute a criminal, but not to gloat, or to hang his wife and child by him while the orc-crowd hooted.
The destruction of Germany, be it times merited, is one of the most appalling world-catastrophes. Well, well,—you and I can do nothing about it.
And that [should] be a measure of the amount of guilt that can justly be assumed to attach to any member of a country who is not a member of its actual Government.
Well the first War of the Machines seems to be drawing to its final inconclusive chapter—leaving, alas, everyone the poorer, many bereaved or maimed and millions dead, and only one thing triumphant: the Machines.
In an earlier, letter to Christopher, he wrote:. There was a solemn article in the local paper seriously advocating systematic exterminating of the entire German nation as the only proper course after military victory: because, if you please, they are rattlesnakes, and don't know the difference between good and evil!
What of the writer? The Germans have just as much right to declare the Poles and Jews exterminable vermin, subhuman, as we have to select the Germans: in other words, no right, whatever they have done.
Tolkien was horrified by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , referring to the scientists of the Manhattan Project as "these lunatic physicists" and " Babel -builders".
During most of his own life conservationism was not yet on the political agenda, and Tolkien himself did not directly express conservationist views—except in some private letters, in which he tells about his fondness for forests and sadness at tree-felling.
In later years, a number of authors of biographies or literary analyses of Tolkien conclude that during his writing of The Lord of the Rings , Tolkien gained increased interest in the value of wild and untamed nature, and in protecting what wild nature was left in the industrialized world.
Tolkien devised several themes that were reused in successive drafts of his legendarium , beginning with The Book of Lost Tales , written while recuperating from the illness contracted during The Battle of the Somme.
Tolkien wished to imitate Morris's prose and poetry romances,  from which he took hints for the names of features such as the Dead Marshes in The Lord of the Rings  and Mirkwood ,  along with some general aspects of approach.
Edward Wyke-Smith 's The Marvellous Land of Snergs , with its "table-high" title characters, strongly influenced the incidents, themes, and depiction of Bilbo's race in The Hobbit.
Tolkien also cited H. Rider Haggard 's novel She in a telephone interview: "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything—like the Greek shard of Amyntas [Amenartas], which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving.
Critics have compared this device to the Testament of Isildur in The Lord of the Rings  and to Tolkien's efforts to produce as an illustration a realistic page from the Book of Mazarbul.
Tolkien wrote of being impressed as a boy by S. Crockett 's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the battle with the wargs in The Fellowship of the Ring partly on an incident in it.
Tolkien was inspired by early Germanic , especially Old English , literature, poetry , and mythology , which were his chosen and much-loved areas of expertise.
These sources of inspiration included Old English literature such as Beowulf , Norse sagas such as the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga ,  the Poetic Edda , the Prose Edda , the Nibelungenlied , and numerous other culturally related works.
Tolkien also acknowledged several non-Germanic influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas. He described its character of Väinämöinen as one of his influences for Gandalf the Grey.
Anderson , John Garth, and many other prominent Tolkien scholars believe that Tolkien also drew influence from a variety of Celtic Irish , Scottish and Welsh history and legends.
Needless to say they are not Celtic! Neither are the tales. I do know Celtic things many in their original languages Irish and Welsh , and feel for them a certain distaste: largely for their fundamental unreason.
They have bright colour, but are like a broken stained glass window reassembled without design. They are in fact "mad" as your reader says—but I don't believe I am.
Fimi pointed out that despite his dismissive remarks about "Celtic things" in that Tolkien was fluent in medieval Welsh though not modern Welsh and declared when delivering the first O'Donnell lectures at Oxford in about the influences of Celtic languages on the English language that "Welsh is beautiful".
One of Tolkien's purposes when writing his Middle-earth books was to create what his biographer Humphrey Carpenter called a "mythology for England" with Carpenter citing in support Tolkien's letter to Milton Waldman complaining of the "poverty of my country: it had no stories of its own bound up with its tongue and soil " unlike the Celtic nations of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, which all had their own well developed mythologies.
Chesterton engaging in a series of polemical essays with Yeats over the question of the superiority of Irish vs. English fairy tales. Catholic theology and imagery played a part in fashioning Tolkien's creative imagination, suffused as it was by his deeply religious spirit.
The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like "religion", to cults or practices, in the imaginary world.
For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. Specifically, Paul H. Kocher argues that Tolkien describes evil in the orthodox Christian way as the absence of good.
He cites many examples in The Lord of the Rings , such as Sauron's "Lidless Eye": "the black slit of its pupil opened on a pit, a window into nothing".
Kocher sees Tolkien's source as Thomas Aquinas , "whom it is reasonable to suppose that Tolkien, as a medievalist and a Catholic, knows well".
Shippey contends that this Christian view of evil is most clearly stated by Boethius: "evil is nothing". He says Tolkien used the corollary that evil cannot create as the basis of Frodo 's remark, "the Shadow Stratford Caldecott also interpreted the Ring in theological terms: "The Ring of Power exemplifies the dark magic of the corrupted will, the assertion of self in disobedience to God.
It appears to give freedom, but its true function is to enslave the wearer to the Fallen Angel.
It corrodes the human will of the wearer, rendering him increasingly 'thin' and unreal; indeed, its gift of invisibility symbolizes this ability to destroy all natural human relationships and identity.
You could say the Ring is sin itself: tempting and seemingly harmless to begin with, increasingly hard to give up and corrupting in the long run.
In addition to writing fiction, Tolkien was an author of academic literary criticism. His seminal lecture, later published as an article, revolutionized the treatment of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf by literary critics.
The essay remains highly influential in the study of Old English literature to this day. Beowulf is one of the most significant influences upon Tolkien's later fiction, with major details of both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings being adapted from the poem.
The piece reveals many of the aspects of Beowulf which Tolkien found most inspiring, most prominently the role of monsters in literature, particularly that of the dragon which appears in the final third of the poem:.
As for the poem, one dragon, however hot, does not make a summer, or a host; and a man might well exchange for one good dragon what he would not sell for a wilderness.
And dragons, real dragons, essential both to the machinery and the ideas of a poem or tale, are actually rare. This essay discusses the fairy-story as a literary form.
Tolkien focuses on Andrew Lang 's work as a folklorist and collector of fairy tales. He disagreed with Lang's broad inclusion, in his Fairy Book collections, of traveller's tales, beast fables, and other types of stories.
Tolkien held a narrower perspective, viewing fairy stories as those that took place in Faerie , an enchanted realm, with or without fairies as characters.
He viewed them as the natural development of the interaction of human imagination and human language. In addition to his mythopoeic compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children.
Other works included Mr. The request for a sequel prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic novel The Lord of the Rings originally published in three volumes — Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings , during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings , in particular his closest friend C.
Lewis , the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Tolkien at first intended The Lord of the Rings to be a children's tale in the style of The Hobbit , but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing.
Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular in the s and has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the 20th century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.
His popularity is not limited to the English-speaking world: in a poll inspired by the UK's "Big Read" survey, about , Germans found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite work of literature.
Moreover, printing costs were very high in s Britain, requiring The Lord of the Rings to be published in three volumes.
Tolkien had appointed his son Christopher to be his literary executor , and he with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay , later a well-known fantasy author in his own right organized some of this material into a single coherent volume, published as The Silmarillion in It received the Locus Award for Best Fantasy novel in In subsequent years — , he published a large amount of the remaining unpublished materials, together with notes and extensive commentary, in a series of twelve volumes called The History of Middle-earth.
They contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative, and outright contradictory accounts, since they were always a work in progress for Tolkien and he only rarely settled on a definitive version for any of the stories.
There is not complete consistency between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit , the two most closely related works, because Tolkien never fully integrated all their traditions into each other.
He commented in , while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to rewrite the book completely because of the style of its prose.
It is a narrative poem composed in alliterative verse and is modelled after the Old Norse poetry of the Elder Edda. Christopher Tolkien supplied copious notes and commentary upon his father's work.
According to Christopher Tolkien, it is no longer possible to trace the exact date of the work's composition. On the basis of circumstantial evidence, he suggests that it dates from the s.
In his foreword he wrote, "He scarcely ever to my knowledge referred to them. For my part, I cannot recall any conversation with him on the subject until very near the end of his life, when he spoke of them to me, and tried unsuccessfully to find them.
Auden , Tolkien wrote,. Thank you for your wonderful effort in translating and reorganising The Song of the Sibyl.
The Fall of Arthur , published on 23 May , is a long narrative poem composed by Tolkien in the earlys. It is alliterative , extending to almost 1, lines imitating the Old English Beowulf metre in Modern English.
Though inspired by high medieval Arthurian fiction, the historical setting of the poem is during the Post-Roman Migration Period , both in form using Germanic verse and in content, showing Arthur as a British warlord fighting the Saxon invasion , while it avoids the high medieval aspects of the Arthurian cycle such as the Grail, and the courtly setting ; the poem begins with a British "counter-invasion" to the Saxon lands Arthur eastward in arms purposed.
Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary , published on 22 May , is a prose translation of the early medieval epic poem Beowulf from Old English to modern English.
Translated by Tolkien from to , it was edited by his son Christopher. The translation is followed by over pages of commentary on the poem; this commentary was the basis of Tolkien's acclaimed lecture " Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics ".
The former is a fantasy piece on Beowulf's biographical background, while the latter is a poem on the Beowulf theme. The Story of Kullervo , first published in Tolkien Studies in and reissued with additional material in , is a retelling of a 19th-century Finnish poem.
It was written in while Tolkien was studying at Oxford. The story is one of three contained within The Silmarillion which Tolkien believed to warrant their own long-form narratives.
The Fall of Gondolin is a tale of a beautiful, mysterious city destroyed by dark forces, which Tolkien called "the first real story" of Middle-earth , was published on 30 August  as a standalone book, edited by Christopher Tolkien and illustrated by Alan Lee.
Raynor, S. Lewis but had never completed, was discovered at the Bodleian Library. Both Tolkien's academic career and his literary production are inseparable from his love of language and philology.
He specialized in English philology at university and in graduated with Old Norse as his special subject. He worked on the Oxford English Dictionary from and is credited with having worked on a number of words starting with the letter W, including walrus , over which he struggled mightily.
Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and in his lecture English and Welsh , which is crucial to his understanding of race and language, he entertained notions of "inherent linguistic predilections", which he termed the "native language" as opposed to the "cradle-tongue" which a person first learns to speak.
Auden in , "I am a West-midlander by blood and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it.
Parallel to Tolkien's professional work as a philologist, and sometimes overshadowing this work, to the effect that his academic output remained rather thin, was his affection for constructing languages.
The most developed of these are Quenya and Sindarin , the etymological connection between which formed the core of much of Tolkien's legendarium.
Language and grammar for Tolkien was a matter of esthetics and euphony , and Quenya in particular was designed from "phonaesthetic" considerations; it was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish, Welsh, English, and Greek.
The popularity of Tolkien's books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature in particular, and even on mainstream dictionaries, which today commonly accept Tolkien's idiosyncratic spellings dwarves and dwarvish alongside dwarfs and dwarfish , which had been little used since the midth century and earlier.
In fact, according to Tolkien, had the Old English plural survived, it would have been dwarrows or dwerrows. He also coined the term eucatastrophe , though it remains mainly used in connection with his own work.
Tolkien was an accomplished artist, who learned to paint and draw as a child and continued to do so all his life. He also produced pictures to accompany the stories told to his own children, including those later published in Mr Bliss and Roverandom , and sent them elaborately illustrated letters purporting to come from Father Christmas.
Although he regarded himself as an amateur, the publisher used the author's own cover art, his maps , and full-page illustrations for the early editions of The Hobbit.
He prepared maps and illustrations for The Lord of the Rings , but the first edition contained only the maps, his calligraphy for the inscription on the One Ring, and his ink drawing of the Doors of Durin.
Much of his artwork was collected and published in as a book: J. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator. The book discusses Tolkien's paintings, drawings, and sketches, and reproduces approximately examples of his work.
In a letter to publisher Milton Waldman — , Tolkien wrote about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which "[t]he cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama".
She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity they bore in style to his own drawings. However, Tolkien was not fond of all the artistic representation of his works that were produced in his lifetime, and was sometimes harshly disapproving.
In , he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of The Hobbit as "too Disnified Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of".
Tolkien was sceptical of the emerging Tolkien fandom in the United States, and in he returned proposals for the dust jackets of the American edition of The Lord of the Rings :.
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